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DRUG INFORMATION

On this page you can find information concerning addiction to the following drugs:
Alcohol     Ambien     Amphetamines     Ativan     Barbituates          Benzodiazapines     Cocaine     Codiene     Darvocet     Demerol     Dexadrine     Dilaudid     Ecstacy     Heroin     Hydrocodone     Lortab     Marijuana     MDMA     Methamphetamines     Methadone     Opiates     Oxycontin     Oxycodone     Percocet     PCP     Ritalin     Rohypnol     Xanax


ALCOHOL

Alcohol addiction can be influenced by a number of factors. Most people use alcohol socially to change how they feel because they want to feel better or different. They use alcohol for the perceived benefits, or the benefits experienced, not for the potential harm. People use alcohol to relax, have fun, to be part of a group, out of curiosity, and to escape from physical and/or psychological pain. Many of the reasons young people use alcohol are the same reasons adults use alcohol.

What causes alcohol addiction? Many factors influence a person's initial alcohol use. Personality characteristics, peer pressure, and psychological stress can all contribute to the early stage of alcohol abuse. These factors are less important as alcohol use continues and the person repeatedly experiences the potent pharmacological effects.

This chemical action, which stimulates certain brain systems, produces the addiction, while other psychological and social factors become less and less important in influencing the individual's behavior. When the pharmacological action of a drug dominates the individual's behavior and the normal psychological and social control of behavior is no longer effective, the addiction is fully developed. This self-perceived "loss of control" is a common feature of alcohol addiction and reflects the biological nature of the problem. People who are physically dependent on alcohol usually develop a tolerance. This means that they need to drink more and more to get the same effect.

Since alcohol so easily permeates every cell and organ of the body, the physical effects of chronic alcohol abuse are wide-ranging and complex. Large doses of alcohol invade the body's fluids and interfere with metabolism in every cell. Alcohol damages the liver, the central nervous system, the gastrointestinal tract, and the heart. Alcoholics who do not quit drinking decrease life expectancy by 10 to 15 years

Alcohol also can impair vision, impair sexual function, slow circulation, cause malnutrition, cause water retention (resulting in weight gain and bloating), lead to pancreatitis and skin disorders (such as middle-age acne), dilate blood vessels near the skin causing "brandy nose," weaken the bones and muscles, and decrease immunity.

AMBIEN

Ambien is in a class of drugs called sedative/hypnotics or sleep medications. Ambien affects chemicals in your brain that may become unbalanced and cause insomnia. Ambien is a Schedule IV controlled substance available in 5- and 10-mg tablets.


Ambien induces sleep and causes relaxation. It is used to treat sleep disorders such as trouble falling asleep, waking up many times during the night, or waking up too early in the morning. Ambien is for short-term use only--usually 7 to 10 days. Longer-term use must be monitored closely by a doctor.

 

Ambien is closely related to a family of drugs called benzodiazepines. These drugs cause sedation, muscle relaxation, act as anti-convulsants (anti-seizure), and have anti-anxiety properties.

It is possible that Ambien (zolpidem) may cause a false-positive
result for benzodiazepines (drugs such as Valium and Xanax) ?

Ambien is not actually a benzodiazepine, but it shares some pharmacological properties with the benzodiazepines.

While it is in the drug Class Hypnotics, it is still a schedule IV Narcotic DEA number 2783 controlled substance. Depending on the testing methods it will show up.
 It is recommended that a Medical Review Officer (MRO) be used to determine whether or not a positive drug test result is caused by Ambien in the Benzodiazepines category.

AMPHETAMINES

Amphetamine, commonly referred to as "speed", was first marketed in the 1930's as Benzedrine in an over-the-counter inhaler to treat nasal congestion. By 1937, amphetamine was available by prescription in tablet form. During World War II, amphetamine was widely used to keep soldiers alert and both dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine) and methamphetamine (Methedrine) became readily available.

Until recent years, amphetamines were commonly prescribed for weight loss. But due to a high potential for abuse and addiction, they are now reserved for limited treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy (attacks of uncontrollable sleepiness), and Parkinson's disease. Because amphetamines increase alertness, energy, and a sense of well-being, they are sometimes used illicitly by truck drivers, shift workers, students, and athletes. They are also commonly abused as appetite suppressant.

Amphetamines are found in a wide variety of shapes and forms and also have a wide variety of sources. Thus, even experienced users may be unable to tell which drug they have actually taken.


Amphetamines are found in both prescription form and in illicitly manufactured forms. Prescription amphetamines are usually found in the form of tablets or capsules - in a variety of shapes and colors. Though prescription amphetamines can be found on the street, typical street amphetamine is manufactured in illicit laboratories. This form of the drug has a higher potential for abuse and addiction than the prescription forms. Illicit amphetamine is found in varied colors, but is normally a white crystalline powder that is sniffed. It is also commonly converted to a liquid form and injected.

ATIVAN

Ativan is the brand name for Lorazepam, an anti-anxiety agent. Ativan is a benzodiazepine and mild tranquilizer, sedative, and central nervous system (CNS) depressant.

Ativan is manufactured in pill form as well as liquid form for injection.

There are many side effects that come with the use and abuse of Ativan, they included but are not limited to: clumsiness, dizziness, sleepiness, unsteadiness, weakness, amnesia, insomnia, agitation, disorientation, depression, headache, visual problems, nausea, abdominal discomfort, drowsiness, blurred vision, tachycardia, weakness, disinhibition (where they act inappropriately grandiose or out-of-control), anterograde amnesia (decreased or lack of recall of events during period of drug action) has been reported after administration of Ativan and appears to be dose-related, injectable Ativan results in an increased incidence of sedation, hallucination, and irrational behavior, some patients on Ativan have developed leukopenia, both elevation and lowering of blood sugar levels have been reported.

BARBITUATES

Synonyms for Barbiturates in General: Sleeping Pills

Street Names for Barbiturates: Barbs, Downers

Barbiturates are commonly divided into groups based on the onset and duration of their action. The intermediate and short-acting barbiturates are the categories most commonly abused, most notably Seconal (secobarbital) and Tuinal (secobarbital with amobarbital).

Long-acting barbiturates have an onset of action of 30 to 60 minutes and a duration of action of 6 to 8 hours. Examples of long-acting barbiturates are phenobarbital and barbital. Their slow onset of action discourages their abuse.

The intermediate-acting barbiturates have an onset of action of 15 to 30 minutes and a duration of action of 4 to 6 hours. Examples of intermediate-acting barbiturates are amobarbital, butabarbital, and Tuinal.

The short-acting barbiturates have an onset of action of 10 to 15 minutes and have a duration of action of 2 to 4 hours. Examples of short-acting barbiturates are secobarbital and pentobarbital. The ultra-short-acting barbiturates have an onset of action of 0 to 45 seconds and a duration of action 15 minutes to 3 hours. These are barbiturates used as anesthetics. Their effects are generally felt within one minute of intravenous administration. Examples of ultra short-acting barbiturates are thiopenthal sodium, hexobarbital, and methohexital. The rapid onset and brief duration of action practically precludes the use of ultra-short-acting barbiturates in the street environment. Concern about the addiction potential of barbiturates and the ever-increasing numbers of fatalities associated with them led to the development of alternative medications.

Barbiturates can be detected in urine drug testing from 2 to 10 days depending on usage.

BENZODIAZAPINES

Street Names: Downers, Nerve Pills, Tranks

Description: The benzodiazepines are central nervous system (CNS) depressants commonly prescribed for the short-term treatment of anxiety and insomnia. Chlordiazepoxide (Librium) was the first benzodiazepine produced. Diazepam (Valium) was the next to be developed and until the early 1980's this was the most widely prescribed tranquillizer in the world. Today, newer benzodiazepines such as alprazolam (Xanax) and lorazepam (Ativan) account for most tranquillizer prescriptions.

 

Benzodiazepines can be detected in urine drug screening from 10 days to 10 weeks depending on usage.


The widespread availability of benzodiazepines has made them common as drugs of abuse. Long-term users typically develop a tolerance to the drugs, requiring larger doses to achieve the desired effects. A psychological and/or physical dependence can develop, making it difficult to discontinue use. Some drug abusers take benzodiazepines to bring them down after using stimulants such as ecstasy or cocaine. Others take them to enhance the effects of alcohol. They are also commonly used as replacement drugs when a user's drug of first choice is not available.

COCAINE

Cocaine, the most potent stimulant of natural origin, is extracted from the leaves of the coca plant (Erythroxylon coca), which is indigenous to the Andean highlands of South America. It is a potent brain stimulant and one of the most powerfully addictive drugs.

Cocaine is produced as a white chunky powder. It is sold most often in aluminum foil, plastic or paper packets, or small vials. Cocaine is usually chopped into a fine powder with a razor blade on a small mirror or some other hard surface, arranged into small rows called "lines," then quickly inhaled (or "snorted") through the nose with a short straw or rolled up paper money. It can also be injected into the blood stream.


Cocaine is a potent, naturally occurring central nervous system (CNS) stimulant. It is derived from the leaves of the coca plant, found primarily in various regions of South America.

There are four primary methods of ingesting cocaine. These are:

1. "Snorting" - absorbing cocaine through the mucous membranes of the nose.

2. Injecting - users mix cocaine powder with water and use a syringe to inject the solution intravenously.

3. Freebasing - Cocaine hydrochloride is converted to a "freebase" which can then be smoked.

4. Crack Cocaine - Cocaine hydrochloride is mixed with ammonia or sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) and other ingredients, causing it to solidify into pellets or "rocks". The crack is then smoked in glass pipes.

CODEINE

Codeine is an alkaloid found in opium in concentrations ranging from 0.7 to 2.5 percent. While codeine can be extracted from opium, most codeine used in the United States is synthesized from morphine through the process of O-methylation.


Codeine is commonly prescribed because it is an effective analgesic and for its pain relieving properties. Many studies have shown that properly managed medical use of Codeine is safe and rarely causes clinical addiction, which is defined as compulsive, often uncontrollable use.

 

Codeine can be used to manage pain effectively for a short period of time. Chronic use of Codeine can result in tolerance to the drug so that higher doses must be taken to obtain the same initial effects. Long-term use also can lead to physical dependence.


Codeine (INN) or methylmorphine is an opioid used for its analgesic, antitussive and antidiarrheal properties. It is marketed as the salts codeine sulfate and codeine phosphate.

DARVOCET

Darvocet is a brand name for mild narcotic analgesic drug which combines Acetaminophen and Propoxy or Propoxyphene, prescribed for the relief of mild to moderate pain, with or without fever. It is sold as: Darvocet A500, Darvocet N 100, Darvocet N 50, Propacet 100, Wygesic, Darvon-N (propoxyphene napsylate), Darvon (propoxyphene hydrochloride), Darvon Compound-65 (propoxyphene hydrochloride, aspirin, and caffeine.

Structurally, Darvocet is a relative of the synthetic narcotic, methadone. It's prescribed in two forms- propoxyphene hydrochloride and propoxyphene napsylate. Darvocet produces psychological and physical dependence like other narcotics, and treatment for Darvocet addiction is much the same.

Drug Class:  Opioids


Darvocet is prescribed to relieve mild to moderate pain, as well as treating fevers. Darvocet is a combination of acetaminophen and propoxyphene. Propoxyphene is a centrally acting narcotic analgesic agent. It works by changing the way your body feels pain. The propoxyphene in Darvocet, if taken in high doses or with other drugs has been associated with numerous drug-related deaths.

DEMEROL

Demerol is a narcotic analgesic with effects similar to morphine; the most prominent of these involve the central nervous system and organs composed of smooth muscle. When prescribed it is used for relief of moderate to severe pain.

 

(Demerol) Meperidine hydrochloride is a narcotic analgesic with multiple actions qualitatively similar to those of morphine; the most prominent of these involve the central nervous system and organs composed of smooth muscle. The principal actions of therapeutic value are analgesia and sedation.


Demerol is a narcotic analgesic with effects similar to morphine; the most prominent of these involve the central nervous system and organs composed of smooth muscle. When prescribed it is used for relief of moderate to severe pain. Demerol is addictive. When the user repeatedly uses Demerol they build a tolerance to the drug and this creates both a mental and physical addiction.

DEXEDRINE

Dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine) is an amphetamine, belonging to the group of medicines called central nervous system (CNS) stimulants. Dexedrine is a Schedule II controlled substance. Dexedrine was often used in the late 60s and early 70s as a prescription diet aid, because one of its effects appetite suppression. Today Dexedrine and its more potent cousin Benzedrine are also commonly (and illegally) used by college students, either for the stimulant high it provides or as a study aid.


Dextroamphetamine a stereoisomer of amphetamine, is a potent central nervous system stimulant that induces the release of the neurotransmitters dopamine and (to a lesser extent) norepinephrine into nerve synapses in certain areas of the brain, thus promoting nerve impulse transmission. In the majority of individuals, dextroamphetamine acts as a psychostimulant, increasing mental alertness and decreasing any sense of fatigue.

DILAUDID

Hydromorphone is a drug used to relieve moderate to severe pain. Hydromorphone is known by the trade name "Dilaudid®", though an extended-release version called Palladone® SR was available for a short time before being pulled from the market in July 2005 due to a high overdose potential when taken with alcohol (still available in the UK as of April 2006). It belongs to a category of drugs known as opioid agonists. It is commonly given to patients who have recently undergone surgery or who have suffered serious injury, and it is given intravenously, intramuscularly, rectally, or orally. Hydromorphone is often sought after by opiate drug abusers as it is one of the most potent of all prescription narcotics.

Dilaudid is an analgesic narcotic with an addiction ability similar to that of morphine. Its effects are apparent within 15 minutes and remain in effect for more than 5 hours. Dilaudid is approximately 8 times more potent on a milligram basis than morphine. Dilaudid is often called "drug store heroin" on the streets. Dilaudid inhibits ascending pain pathways in the central nervous system. Dilaudid also increases the pain threshold by altering their pain perception.


Elimination half-life:  2-3 hours

CLASS: Semi-synthetic μ-opioid agonist

ECSTACY

MDMA or ecstasy is a Schedule I, synthetic, psychoactive drug possessing stimulant and hallucinogenic properties. Ecstasy possesses chemical variations of the stimulant amphetamine or methamphetamine and a hallucinogen, most often mescaline. Ecstasy is a semi-synthetic chemical compound.


MDMA use is closely tied to the underground rave (and dance club) scene throughout the world, but has also been widely used by therapists as an adjunct to psychotherapy. Because MDMA is so popular and because it goes well with dance parties, the demand for it usually exceeds supply--especially at any given location on any given night


MDMA, or 'ecstasy' is a 'psychedelic amphetamine' that has gained popularity over the past 20 years because of its ability to produce strong feelings of comfort, empathy, and connection to others. It most frequently comes in tablet form, although it is occasionally sold in capsules or as powder. It is most frequently used orally and rarely snorted.    MDMA use is closely tied to the underground rave (and dance club) scene throughout the world, but has also been widely used by therapists as an adjunct to psychotherapy. Because MDMA is so popular and because it goes well with dance parties, the demand for it usually exceeds supply--especially at any given location on any given night.


MDMA use is closely tied to the underground rave (and dance club) scene throughout the world, but has also been widely used by therapists as an adjunct to psychotherapy. Because MDMA is so popular and because it goes well with dance parties, the demand for it usually exceeds supply--especially at any given location on any given night.

HEROIN

Heroin is an illegal, highly addictive, opiate drug. Its abuse is more widespread than any other opiate. Heroin is processed from morphine, a naturally occurring substance extracted from the seed pod of certain varieties of poppy plants. It is typically sold as a white or brownish powder, or as the black sticky substance known on the streets as "black tar heroin." Although purer heroin is becoming more common, most street heroin is "cut" with other drugs or with substances such as sugar, starch, powdered milk, or quinine.


Heroin is a semi-synthetic opiate derived from morphine or codeine and is the most potent of the opiates . It is typically found in white to brown powdered form and is injected, sniffed, or smoked. In the past, powders sold as illicit heroin typically contained only 1% to 10% of the drug.


Slang terms: "smack", "junk", "horse", "skag", "H", "China white."


Indicated for:
Relief of extreme pain.

Recreational uses: Euphoria, relaxation.


Other uses:
Pain relief, cough suppressant, anti-diarrhea.

HYDROCODONE

Hydrocodone or dihydrocodeinone is a semi-synthetic opioid derived from two of the naturally occurring opiates, codeine and thebaine.
 
Hydrocodone is an orally active narcotic analgesic and antitussive. It is commonly available in tablet, capsule, and syrup form and is often compounded with other analgesics like acetaminophen or ibuprofen.


When sold commercially in the United States, hydrocodone is always combined with another medication. Those combined with acetaminophen are known by various trademark names, such as Vicodin and Lortab.

LORTAB

Lortab is an opioid derived from either of the naturally occurring opiates codeine or thebaine. Hydrocodone is an orally active narcotic analgesic and antitussive. The typical therapeutic dose of 5 to 10 mg is pharmacologically equivalent to 30 to 60 mg of oral codeine.

Oral hydrocodone is considered 1.5 times as potent as oral morphine.


When sold commercially in the United States, hydrocodone is always combined with another medication. Those combined with acetaminophen are known by various trademark names, such as Vicodin and Lortab.

MARIJUANA

Marijuana is a green or gray mixture of dried, shredded flowers and leaves of the hemp plant (Cannabis sativa). It is the most often used illegal drug in this country. All forms of cannabis are mind-altering (psychoactive) drugs that contain THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol), the main active chemical in marijuana.  Of the roughly 400 chemicals found in the cannabis plant, THC affects the brain the most.


THC is the chemical in marijuana which makes you feel "high" (which means experiencing a change in mood and seeing or feeling things differently). Certain parts of the plant contain higher levels of THC. The flowers or "buds" have more THC than the stems or leaves.


When marijuana is smoked, THC goes quickly into the blood through the lungs and then to the brain (this is when the "high" is felt and can happen within a few minutes and can last up to five hours). THC is absorbed more slowly into the blood when marijuana is eaten because it has to pass through the stomach and intestine and can take up to one hour to experience the "high" effects, which can last up to 12 hours. THC is absorbed quickly into body fat and is then released very slowly back into the blood. This process can take up to one month for a single dose of THC to fully leave the body.


MDMA

MDMA or ecstasy is a Schedule I, synthetic, psychoactive drug possessing stimulant and hallucinogenic properties. Ecstasy possesses chemical variations of the stimulant amphetamine or methamphetamine and a hallucinogen, most often mescaline. Ecstasy is a semi-synthetic chemical compound.


MDMA, or 'ecstasy' is a 'psychedelic amphetamine' that has gained popularity over the past 20 years because of its ability to produce strong feelings of comfort, empathy, and connection to others. It most frequently comes in tablet form, although it is occasionally sold in capsules or as powder. It is most frequently used orally and rarely snorted.   

MDMA use is closely tied to the underground rave (and dance club) scene throughout the world, but has also been widely used by therapists as an adjunct to psychotherapy. Because MDMA is so popular and because it goes well with dance parties, the demand for it usually exceeds supply--especially at any given location on any given night.

METHAMPHETAMINES

Methamphetamine is a stimulant drug chemically related to amphetamine but with stronger effects on the central nervous system. It is a white, odorless, bitter-tasting crystalline powder that easily dissolves in water or alcohol. "Meth" is made of highly volatile, toxic substances (based on such chemical "precursors" as methylamine and amyl amine) that are melded in differing combinations, forming what some have described as a "mix of laundry detergent and lighter fluid."


Methamphetamine is a powerful central nervous system stimulant.

The drug works directly on the brain and spinal cord by interfering with normal neurotransmission. Neurotransmitters are chemical substances naturally produced within nerve cells used to communicate with each other and send messages to influence and regulate our thinking and all other systems throughout the body.

The main neurotransmitter affected by methamphetamine is dopamine. Dopamine is involved with our natural reward system. For example, feeling good about a job well done, getting pleasure from our family or social interactions, feeling content and that our lives are meaningful and count for something, all rely on dopamine transmission.


Ice is the translucent crystal, smokable form of methamphetamine. It is also commonly called glass or crystal and, like other stimulants, is highly addictive. (In terms of molecular structure, ice and methamphetamine are the same)The use of ice results in a longer, more intense high and an enhanced and more rapid onset of the negative effects of other forms of methamphetamine.

METHADONE

Methadone mimics many of the effects of opiates such as heroin. Methadone is one of a number of synthetic opiates (also called opioids) that are manufactured for medical use and have similar effects to heroin. These include dihydrocodeinone (DF118s), pethidine (often used in childbirth), diconal, palfium and temgesic

Methadone and subutex (buprenorphine) are used as substitutes for heroin in the treatment of heroin addiction.

Methadone mimics many of the effects of opiates such as heroin. However, there are many differences. For example, heroin produces an almost immediate "rush" or brief period of euphoria, which wears off relatively quickly, resulting in a strong craving to use more heroin. In contrast, methadone has a more gradual onset of action when administered orally. Its effects can last up to 24 hours, which allows the patient to take methadone only once a day without experiencing withdrawal symptoms. Research has demonstrated that, when methadone is given in regular doses by a physician, it has the ability to block the euphoria caused by heroin if the individual does try to take heroin. Despite methadone's role in the treatment of heroin addiction, it has addictive properties and also a high potential for abuse on the street. Methadone enters the illicit drug market primarily as a result of patients selling their prescriptions.


Methadone doesn't deliver the same degree of buzz or high like heroin. It allows people to tackle their psychological addiction and stabilize their lifestyle when used as a substitute for heroin in treatment it stops withdrawal symptoms. Then the dose can be reduced slowly until that user is off the drug completely. When used to come off heroin there are still problems with withdrawal but there are much less severe than 'cold turkey' that occurs when stopping heroin.

OPIATES

The term opiate refers to the alkaloids found in opium, an extract from the seed pods of the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.). It has also traditionally referred to natural and semi-synthetic derivatives of morphine. The term is often incorrectly used to refer to all drugs with opium-/morphine-like pharmacological action, which are more properly classified under the broader term opioid.

Opiates are primarily central nervous system (CNS) depressants and narcotic analgesics. The use of opiates typically creates physical as well as psychological dependence and tolerance. Opium is the milky latex fluid contained in the unripened seed pod of the opium poppy (papaver somniferum). Opium contains a number of different alkaloids. But only one family of alkaloids, the phemanthrene alkaloids, can be converted to narcotic substances. It is this highly addictive family of alkaloids and their derivatives that are controlled by national and international law. From this family comes morphine, codeine, and thebaine - the natural opiates. The semi-synthetic opiates are then derived from these substances.

OXYCONTIN

OxyContin (oxycodone HCI controlled-release) is the brand name for an opioid analgesic (pain reliever) -- a narcotic. It is available by prescription only and is used to treat moderate to severe pain when around-the-clock analgesic is needed for an extended period of time.

OxyContin is available in tablet form in 5 doses: 10, 20, 40, 80, and 160mg. (However, the manufacturer is no longer shipping 160mg).
Mainly utilized as pain medication, OxyContin is taken every 12 hours because the tablets contain a controlled, time-release formulation of the medication. Most pain medications must be taken every three to six hours.


Oxycontin abusers remove the sustained-release coating to get a rapid release of the medication, causing a rush of euphoria similar to heroin.


OxyContin, approved by the FDA in 1995, is an opium derivative that contains the same active ingredient as Percodan and Percocet. OxyContin is intended for use by terminal cancer patients and chronic pain sufferers. The structural formula for oxycodone hydrochloride is as follows: The chemical formula is 4, 5-epoxy-14-hydroxy-3-methoxy-17-methylmorphinan-6-one hydrochloride. OxyContin is designed so that the oxycodone is slowly released over time.

OXYCODONE

Oxycodone is a white, odorless, crystalline powder derived from the opium alkaloid.

Oxycodone hydrochloride dissolves in water (1 g in 6 to 7 mL). It is slightly soluble in alcohol (octanol water partition coefficient 0.7). The tablets contain the following inactive ingredients: ammonio methacrylate copolymer, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, lactose, magnesium stearate, povidone, red iron oxide (20 mg strength tablet only), stearyl alcohol, talc, titanium dioxide, triacetin, yellow iron oxide (40 mg strength tablet only), and other ingredients.


Oxycodone is a very powerful and potentially addictive opioid analgesic medication synthesized from thebaine. It is effective orally and is marketed in combination with aspirin (Percodan, Endodan, Roxiprin) or acetaminophen (Percocet, Endocet, Roxicet, Tylox) for the relief of pain. More recently, ibuprofen has been added to oxycodone (Combunox). It is also sold in a sustained-release form by Purdue Pharma under the trade name OxyContin as well as generic equivalents, and instant-release forms OxyIR, OxyNorm, Percolone, OxyFAST, and Roxicodone.

PERCOCET

See Oxycodone

PCP

PCP, commonly known as angel dust, is usually classified as a hallucinogen. However, it also has the effects of a stimulant, an anesthetic, or a narcotic pain-killer, depending on how much is taken.

PCP (phencyclidine) is classified as a hallucinogen and has many of the same effects as LSD, but can be much more dangerous.

PCP has powerful and unpredictable hallucinogenic properties. As a result, individual PCP episodes can vary greatly. Many PCP users are brought to emergency rooms because of its unpleasant psychological effects or because of overdose. Continued PCP use can lead to psychological dependence, as well as tolerance.


PCP (phencyclidine) was developed in the 1950s as an intravenous anesthetic. Its use in humans was discontinued in 1965, because patients often became agitated, delusional, and irrational while recovering from its anesthetic effects. PCP is illegally manufactured in laboratories and is sold on the street by such names as angel dust, ozone, wack, and rocket fuel. Killer joints and crystal supergrass are names that refer to PCP combined with marijuana. The variety of street names for PCP reflects its bizarre and volatile effects.


PCP was first tested after World War I as a surgical anesthetic. Because of its adverse side-effects, it was shelved until the 1950s. It was then patented by Parke-Davis and named Sernyl (supposedly referring to serenity), but was again withdrawn from the market because of side effects. It was soon renamed Sernylan, and marketed as a veterinary anesthetic, but again discontinued. Its side effects and long half-life in the human body made it unsuitable for medical applications. It is retained in fatty tissue and is broken down by the human metabolism into PCHP, PPC and PCAA. When smoked, some of it is broken down by heat into 1-phenyl-1-cyclohexene (PC) and piperidine.

RITALIN

Ritalin (methylphenidate (MPH)) is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant. It has effects similar to, but more potent than, caffeine and less potent than amphetamines.

MPH is an amphetamine-like prescription stimulant commonly used to treat Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children and adults. It is also one of the primary drugs used to treat symptoms of traumatic brain injury and the daytime drowsiness symptoms of narcolepsy and chronic fatigue syndrome. Brand names of drugs that contain methylphenidate include Ritalin® (Ritalina®), Concerta® (a timed-release capsule), Metadate®, Methylin® and Rubifen®. Focalin® is a preparation containing only dextro-methylphenidate, rather than the usual racemic dextro- and laevo-methylphenidate mixture of other formulations. his medication is often prescribed for children who are believed to have attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).


Because stimulant medicines such as Ritalin have such a high potential for abuse, the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) has placed tight, Schedule II controls on their manufacture, distribution, and prescription. For example, the DEA requires special licenses for these activities, and prescription refills are not allowed. Also, each state may impose further regulations and restrictions, such as limiting the number of dosage units per prescription.

ROHYPNOL

The "date rape" drug is the common name for Rohypnol, generically called flunitrazepam. Rohypnol is manufactured by Hoffman-La Roche and prescribed as a sleeping pill in countries outside of the United States. It is used as a short-term treatment for insomnia, as a sedative hypnotic and a pre-anesthetic. It has physiological effects similar to Valium (diazepam), but is approximately ten times more potent. It is used also as an illicit drug, often in combination with other drugs, such as heroin, cocaine, and alcohol. Common names for Rohypnol include the following: rophies, roofies, R2, roofenol, Roche, roachies, la rocha, rope, rib, circles, Mexican valium, roach-2, roopies, and ropies.

Since about 1990, GHB (gamma-hydroxybutyrate) has been abused in the U.S. for euphoric, sedative, and anabolic (body-building) effects. GHB use associated with sexual assault has surpassed Rohypnol use associated with sexual assault.

Gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is an illicit chemical that has become a major cause of drug-related comas in the US and other countries. In fact, the number of GHB overdoses in the United States has now out-paced overdoses from MDMA (Ecstasy). GHB was rejected by the American medical community in the 1960s, but has become popular among many people for its ability to cross the blood-brain barrier freely and depress consciousness, resulting in euphoria and intoxication. It is also touted on the Internet as a sleep aid, an anti-depressant and weight loss product, although these uses are not substantiated by reality and may carry a potentially deadly twist.

XANAX

Xanax is prescription tranquilizer which depresses the nervous system in a way similar to alcohol. Xanax has found its way from pharmacies to drug dealers, and is being abused by young, healthy people who want to get high.

Xanax has depressant effects on brain areas that regulate wakefulness and alertness, very similar in effect to alcohol and sedative barbiturates.

Alprazolam, trade name Xanax, is a short-acting drug in the benzodiazepine class used to treat anxiety disorders and as an adjunctive treatment for depression.